Adam Hargreaves

Adam Hargreaves

Currently researcher on an ERC-funded grant in the Department of Zoology at Oxford University – website

Brief CV

2010 – 2014
PhD – School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University (funded by Bangor University 125th Anniversary Studentship)

MRes Ecology – Bangor University

BSc (Hons) Tropical Disease Biology – University of Liverpool

Research interests

The main theme of my research interests involves how changes in the genome and alterations in gene regulation can give rise to novel phenotypes, and how these relate to evolutionary adaptation. I have predominantly used next-generation sequencing and in silico analyses to explore these areas in venomous snakes. Snake venom presents itself as an ideal model due to its extensive variability, the importance of gene duplication in its diversification, and its fundamental importance as an evolutionary innovation in snakes.

Naja kaouthia Bitis arietans Echis coloratus

Contact details

Email: adamdhargreaves (at)
Twitter: @AdamHargreaves5


Hargreaves AD and Mulley JF (2015) ‘Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing’ PeerJ 3:e1441; DOI 10.7717/peerj.1441

Hargreaves AD, Tucker A, Mulley JF (2015) ‘A Critique of the Toxicoferan Hypothesis’ Evolution of Venomous Animals and Their Toxins (Part of the series Toxinology, Eds: P. Gopalakrishnakone, Anita Malhotra) ISBN: 978-94-007-6727-0 (Online) pp 1-15

Mulley JF, Hargreaves AD, Hegarty MJ, Heller RS, Swain MT (2014) ‘Transcriptomic analysis of the lesser spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) pancreas, liver and brain reveals molecular level conservation of vertebrate pancreas function’ BMC Genomics 15: 1074

Hargreaves AD, Swain MT, Logan DW and Mulley JF (2014) ‘Testing the Toxicofera: comparative reptile transcriptomics casts doubt on the single, early evolution of the reptile venom system’ Toxicon 92: 140-156

Hargreaves AD & Mulley JF (2014) ‘A plea for standardized nomenclature of snake venom toxins’ Toxicon 90: 351-353

Hargreaves AD, Swain MT, Hegarty MJ, Logan DW and Mulley JF (2014) ‘Restriction and recruitment – gene duplication and the origin and evolution of snake venom toxins’ Genome Biology and Evolution 6(8): 2088-2095  

Castoe, T. A. et al. (2012). Report from the first snake genomics and integrative biology meeting. Standards in genomic sciences. 7(1): 150-2

Harrison, R. A., Hargreaves, A., Wagstaff, S. C., Faragher, B. And Laloo, D. G. (2009). Snake envenoming: a disease of poverty. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 3(12) e569